IF CLAUSES / CONDITIONAL CLAUSES (Type 3)
Conditional clauses consist of two sentences. One is a clause that starts with if, which is called as ‘if clause’. The other is called the Main clause. Each sentence has a verb. It is important to know which tenses are to be used in these clauses and they play a big role in determining the meaning of the sentence. Detailed information for the type 3 is given below:
Form of The Type 3 :
The tense in if clause is generally past perfect tense; the tense in main clause is generrally modal perfect ( would + have + V3 )
Although there are different uses which we will specify below;
|Type||If clause (condition)||Main clause (result)|
If + Past perfect continuous Could have + 3
Subject + could + have + V3
Using Type 3:
The conditional sentences indicate us a possible condition and its probable result. It means that the expected actions depends on a condition. If Clauses – Type 3 is used to express the past and the impossible situations that can no longer be changed. In other words, The condition specified in the clause is imaginary or unreal or impossible condition in the past that did not happen.
Type 3 is often used to express criticism or regret;
- If he had talked to me, I would have listened to him. ( but he didn’t talk to me )
- If it had rained last weekend, we would have stayed at home. ( but it didn’t rain last weekend)
- If she had saved enough money, she would have bought a new bicycle. ( but she didn’t save enough money )
- If it had been a huge explosion, so many people couldn’t have been affected. ( but it is huge explosion so many people affected )
- If the student had listened to the teacher carefully, he would have answered the questions easily. ( but he didn’t )
- If my daugter had seen this toys, she probably would have wanted me to buy them. ( but she didn’t see them)
- If I had guessed the future, I would have taken some precautions againist what would happen. ( but I didn’t guess)
- If she had found his phone number, she might have called him for the party. ( but she didn’t find it)
- If I could have spoken english very well, I would have talked to the tourists in Paris. ( but I couldn’t)
- If he had been good at math, he would have got a high score from the exam last week. ( but he wasn’t good at)
- If we had had the necessary ingredients for a cake, we could have made a cake. ( but we didn’t have)
- If I had been a smart boy, I would not have annoyed my mother. ( but I wasn’t a smart boy)
- If Marry had had a meeting, she would have gone to the Office. ( but she didn’t have a meeting)
- If I had waited for you more, I would have missed the plane. ( but I didn’t wait )
- If she had gone on a picnic, she would have had a lot of fun. ( but she didn’t go)
- If David had married with me, I would have been the luckiest woman in the world. ( but he didn’t marry with me)
- If you had participated in the competition, you would have won the prize. ( but you didn’t participate )
1. The sentence can begin with an if clause or a main clause. If the sentence begins with an ‘if clause’, put a comma between the if clause and the main clause.
(If) + (past tense, or could ) + (,) + ( present unreal conditional (would) or modals)
(present unreal conditional (would) or modals ) + (if) + (past tense, or could)
- If I had studied, I would have passed the exam. (or) I would have passed the exam if I had studied.
- If the museum had been open, we would have seen many different handworks. (or) We would have seen many different handworks if the museum had been open.
- If the child had had breakfast, she would have been active. (or) She would have been active if the child had had breakfast.
2. If you want, we can use modals in both ‘ıf clause’ and ‘main clause’ or you can use modals only in one part.
- If I had had the power, I might have looked after myself.
- If my son could have taken the English course, he could have passed the exam.
- If she could have gone to Mexico, she would have seen the best friends.
3. In Type 3, one or two of the clauses can be negative
- If I had passed my exam, I would not ( wouldn’t ) have been sad.
- If you had not ( hadn’t ) listened to me, you would n’t have been successful.
- If she hadn’t fallen off the bicycle, she would have arrived at the school in time.
4. Using Type3 in questions
- What would have happen if there hadn’t been any electricity in our lives?
- Would you have helped me if you had had time?
- Wouldn’t you have studied hard if I hadn’t warned you?
- What would you have done if you had had lots of money?
5. Tenses and structures can be used in If Clauses- Type 3 are given below:
a. In If Clause; we can use past perfect tense, past perfect continuous tense and could + have + V3.
- If Jack had known where you were, he would probably have came you.
- If you had been looking around carefully, you would have seen me.
- If they could have developed their bussiness, they would have enlarged their workplaces.
b. In main clause; We can use would + have + V3, could + have + V3 and might + have +V3.
- If you had came here a bit early, you would have seen the most famous actor of London.
- If my income had been very much, I could have bought a house with a garden.
- If I had been an educated mother, I might have brought up my children better.